new zealand electronic poetry centre


Robin Hyde



[Parts 1, 2, 3, 4, footnotes ]

[i]  Quoted in Gillian Boddy, 'The Life of Robin Hyde', in Boddy and Jacqueline Matthews (eds), Disputed Ground: Robin Hyde, Journalist (VUP, Wellington, 1991), p.30.  

[ii]  Mackay, review of Duggan's New Zealand Bird Songs, Christchurch Times, 11 January 1930, p.33.  
[iii]  Pat Lawlor, Confessions of a Journalist (Whitcombe & Tombs, Auckland, 1935), p. 214.

[iv]  Eileen Duggan, 'Shades of Maro of Toulouse', More Poems (Allen & Unwin, London, 1951), p.17.   

[v]  For details of the publishing careers of Mackay, Baughan, Bethell, Duggan and Hyde, see individual entries in John Thompson's Bibliography in Terry Sturm (ed.), The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature (OUP, Auckland, 1991). I have addressed the matter and nature of the matrix in '"But don't forget the girl is a genuis": Re-reading New Zealand Women Poets', a five-part radio series broadcast on Concert FM, 29 July-26 August 1993.   

[vi]  Gloria Rawlinson, The Perfume Vendor (Hutchinson, London, 1935); reprinted 1936, 1937. Robin Hyde, The Conquerors and Other Poems (Macmillan, London, 1935). The figures and Hyde's reaction are recorded in a letter of December 1935 to Mary Smee quoted in Disputed Ground, p.59.   

[vii]  Duggan, Poems (Allen & Unwin, London, 1937, 2nd ed. 1939 [1500 copies]; Macmillan, New York, 1938, 2nd ed. 1939). Available figures show print runs between 1000 and 1250 for Duggan's earlier and later books; see F.M. Mackay, Eileen Duggan, New Zealand Writers and Their Work (OUP, Wellington, 1977), pp.51-52.  

[viii]  Duggan, letter to W.F. Alexander, Turnbull MS Papers 423, Folder 6; quoted in Mackay, p.55.  

[ix]  Duggan, '”Dit L'Écrivisse Mère . . .”', Selected Poems, ed. Peter Whiteford (VUP, Wellington, 1994), p.103. Whiteford's notes on this poem and 'Shades of Maro of Toulouse' indicate the scope of Duggan's literary referencing; the term 'écrivisse' remains unidentified.  

[x]  Henry James, 'The Middle Years', in Gerard Hopkins (ed.), Selected Stories, v.2, (OUP, London, 1957), p.139.  

[xi]  Duggan, ‘Booty’. Poems (1937), p.20. See also Matthew 11.12 [Douai Rheims Version]. Flannery O'Connor's novel The Violent Bear It Away (1960) owes its title to the same Bible; my thanks to Peter Simpson for pointing out the connection.  

[xii]  Hyde, 'Written in Cold', Persephone in Winter (Hurst & Blackett, London, 1937), p.22.  

[xiii]  Hyde, 'The Beaches' IV, Houses by the Sea, in Gloria Rawlinson (ed.), Houses by the Sea (Caxton, Christchurch, 1952), p.116.  

[xiv]  Hyde, 'The Houses' II, Houses by the Sea, pp.120-21.  

[xv]  Rawlinson, Introduction to Houses by the Sea, p.18.  

[xvi]  Hyde, 'The Conquerors', The Conquerors, p.5.  

[xvii]  Hyde, 'Journal 1935: An Autobiographical Work', 12 May 1935. Typescript copy in Auckland City Library, NZ MS 837. Hyde is quoting part of Roy Campbell's epigram 'On Some South African Novelists'; see Peter Alexander (ed.), Selected Poems (OUP, Oxford, 1982), p.20.  

[xviii]  Hyde, 'Poetry in Auckland', Art in New Zealand 9,1 (September 1936), pp.29-34.  

[xix]  Hyde, 'Woman', The Conquerors, p.14.  

[xx]  Hyde, 'Husband and Wife', Houses by the Sea, pp.65-69.  

[xxi]  Recent research gathers the specifics and contextualises the attacks: see Elizabeth A. Thomas, 'Appropriation, Subversion and Separatism: The Strategies of Three New Zealand Women Novelists: Jane Mander, Robin Hyde and Sylvia Ashton-Warner', PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, 1990, pp.133-99; Susan Ash, 'Narrating a Female Subjectivity in the Works of Katherine Mansfield, Robin Hyde, Janet Frame and Keri Hulme', PhD thesis, University of Otago, 1990, pp.8-23; Mary Paul, 'The Politics of Reading: Mander, Mansfield, Hyde and Campion', PhD thesis, University of Auckland, forthcoming, ch. 5.  

[xxii]  Hyde, 'Journey from New Zealand', Houses by the Sea, p.133.  

[xxiii]  Hyde, 'The Pioneers', Houses by the Sea, p.47.  

[xxiv]  See for example Allen Curnow, Introduction to A Book of New Zealand Verse 1923-1945 (Caxton, Christchurch, 1945), p.24; Denis Glover, The Arraignment of Paris (Caxton, Christchurch, 1937); or Glover and A.R.D. Fairburn, Poetry Harbinger (Pilgrim, Auckland, 1958).  

[xxv]  Baughan, Shingle-short and Other Verses (Whitcombe & Tombs, Christchurch, 1908), pp.71-76; 137-205.  

[xxvi]  See entries on Baughan in A.G. Bagnall (ed.), New Zealand National Bibliography: 1890-1960 (Government Printer, Wellington, 1969-85).  

[xxvii]  Elsie Locke, Student at the Gates. (Whitcoulls, Christchurch, 1981), chs 11, 22, and 23.  

[xxviii]  See Boddy, Disputed Ground, p.51.  

[xxix]  Disputed Ground gathers much of this writing, including 'The New Zealand Woman in Letters' (April 1936), 'Woman Today’ (April 1937), 'Women Have No Star' (June 1937), and 'New Zealand Authoresses' (February 1938). Thomas discusses the importance of 'Poetry in Auckland' (see note 21 above), pp. 161-63.  

[xxx]  Hyde, letter of 16 January 1938. Turnbull MS papers 418, Folder 22.  

[xxxi]  Denis Glover, review of The Conquerors in Tomorrow, 18 March 1936, p.12.  

[xxxii]  Hyde, 'Zoological', Houses by the Sea, pp.43-44.  

[xxxiii]  Hyde, 'The Dusky Hills', Houses by the Sea, p.46.  

[xxxiv] Hyde, 'Young Knowledge’, Houses by the Sea, p.60.  

[xxxv]  Hyde, 'The Hillside'. Unpublished typescript in University of Auckland Manuscripts and Archives, Iris Wilkinson Papers B-14. The collection contains several hundred manuscript poems which were sorted and inventoried by Gloria Rawlinson in 1959.  

[xxxvi]  Hyde, letter of 16 January 1938. Quoted in part in John Weir, 'Five New Zealand Poets: A Bibliographical and Critical Account of Manuscript Material', PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, 1974, p.72. Duggan's literary papers, hereafter referred to as Duggan Estate, are housed in the Archdiocese of Wellington Archives.  

[xxxvii]  Duggan, 'The Shag', New Zealand Bird Songs (Harry H. Tombs, Wellington, 1929), p.29.  

[xxxviii]  Duggan, 'The Tui', New Zealand Bird Songs, p.13.  

[xxxix]  Duggan, 'Heralds', Poems (1937), p.13.  

[xl]  Rawlinson's quotation is recorded in Disputed Ground, p. 66; she substitutes ‘wanderers’ for ‘stumblers’. ‘The Unbelievers’ is described in Hyde's 1935 Journal; extant drafts are part of her literary estate and are described in Patrick Sandbrook, 'Robin Hyde: A Writer at Work', PhD thesis, Massey University, 1985, pp.364-67.  

[xli]  Duggan, 'Forerunners', Art in New Zealand 2,5 (September 1929), p.17.  

[xlii]  Duggan, 'The Wheat', New Zealand Poems (Allen & Unwin, London, 1940), p.31.  

[xliii]  Duggan, ‘New Zealand Art’, Poems (1937), p.47. Whiteford notes a cutting with author's inscription: 'Commonweal N.Y. 1926? 1929?’, Selected Poems, p.148.  

[xliv]  Duggan, 'After the Annunciation', Poems (1937), p.26.  

[xlv]  Curnow, Introduction to A Book of New Zealand Verse 1923-1945, p.25.  

[xlvi]  Duggan, 'Twilight', Poems (1937), p.30.  

[xlvii]  Curnow, Introduction to A Book of New Zealand Verse 1923-1945, p.25n.  

[xlviii]  Grace Burgess, A Gentle Poet: A Portrait of Eileen Duggan, O.B.E. (Burgess, Carterton, 1981), pp.84-87. Burgess quotes from and paraphrases letters in the Duggan Estate; she was the first sytematically to sort the bulk of Duggan’s papers which were then deposited with the Catholic church according to instructions in Duggan’s will. See Grace Burgess, letter of 11 December 1994 to Michele Leggott, in University of Auckland Mss and Archives, Grace Burgess Papers.  

[xlix]  Weir, p.109. Weir does not document the Penguin anthology negotiations, but Anne French lists and summarises them in her MA thesis, 'Georgians and New Zealand Georgians: A Study of Eileen Duggan and R.A.K. Mason’, Victoria University of Wellington, 1979, pp.130-32.  

[l]  Colin Patterson to Penguin Books, 12 July 1960, Duggan Estate. The file consists of copies of letters made in the lawyer's office and sent to Duggan for her information as the correspondence proceeded.  

[li]  Curnow, Introduction to The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1960), p.67.  

[lii]  Duggan to Sir Stanley Unwin, her publisher, undated carbon (after 25 June 1958). Duggan's signed draft letter of 5 July 1958 to Curnow itemises the history of these choices. Both items in Duggan Estate.  

[liii]  Patterson was in 1958 a partner in Barnett Corry Watts and Patterson, later Rudd Watts and Stone. See 'A Battler for Fair Disclosure', obituary in the New Zealand Herald, 8 February 1990.  

[liv]  See W.H. Oliver, James K. Baxter: A Portrait (Port Nicholson Press, Wellington, 1983), p.78; also Peter Simpson, 'Ways to the Museyroom: Poetry Anthologies in the Fifties', Landfall 185 (April 1993), 95-105.  

[lv]  Duggan, 'Absence’, Selected Poems, p.94.  

[lvi]  Duggan, '”Dit L'Écrivisse Mère . . .”', Selected Poems, p.104 and note. See also Weir, p.97, where a probable date of 1951-52 is given.  

[lvii]  Duggan, quoted in Weir, p.77; manuscripts described p.97. French (p.145) lists a letter of 24 October 1932 from Nettie Palmer to Duggan which discusses the poem. Letter and manuscripts in Duggan Estate.  

[lviii]  Duggan,'Song', New Zealand Poems, p.41.  

[lix]  Mackay, letter of 2 January 1937, Duggan Estate.  

[lx]  The receipt is an enclosure with the Wanganui Regional Museum's letter of 18 December 1984 to Grace Burgess. Copy in University of Auckland Manuscripts and Archives, Grace Burgess Papers.  

[lxi]  Duggan, 'Bequest', Poems (1937), p.28. The funeral card is part of the Grace Burgess Papers at Auckland University.  

[lxii]  Mackay, letter of 6 April 1929, Duggan Estate.  

[lxiii]  Hyde, 'Autobiography,' Auckland City Library, NZ MS 412A; also, from the same source: 'But they let me see him, though not to hold him, after he was dead [. . .] He was very dark, the little face I touched was warm, the mouth turned down, the hands were square [. . .] They wouldn't let me see him again, — morphine and sleep instead', quoted in Boddy, Disputed Ground, p.22.  

[lxiv] Hyde, typescript in University of Auckland Manuscripts and Archives, Holloway Press Archive.  

[lxv]  Hyde, 1935 Journal, quoted by her son Derek Challis in his introduction to Hyde's A Home in This World (Longman Paul, Auckland, 1984), p.xiv.  

[lxvi]  Hyde, letter of 21 August 1939 to Gloria Rawlinson, quoted in Rawlinson's Introduction to Houses by the Sea, p.33; entry of 15 June in 1935 Journal.  

[lxvii]  Hyde, typescript in University of Auckland Manuscripts and Archives, Iris Wilkinson Papers B-14.  

[lxviii]  Hyde, entry of 12 May in 1935 Journal. The seventeen children's verses grouped together by Rawlinson in 1959 seem likely to have been part of this project.  

[lxix] Hyde, quoted in Rawlinson's introduction to Houses by the Sea, p.15; 'Women Have No Star', Press, 5 June 1937, reprinted in Disputed Ground, pp.201-05.  

[lxx]  Stanley, 'The Widow', Starveling Year and Other Poems (AUP, Auckland, 1994), p.35.



Last updated 11 May 2001