new zealand electronic poetry centre

 

Murray Edmond


essays
[Parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, footnotes]

    

THEN IT WAS NOW AGAIN:
NEW ZEALAND POETRIES AND COLONIAL HISTORIES


continued

 

Notes:

1. Robin Hyde, 'Young Knowledge', in The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse, ed. by Ian Wedde and Harvey McQueen (Auckland: Penguin, 1985), p. 166, lines 97 – 98.

2. See Keith Sinclair, A History of New Zealand rev. edn. (Auckland: Penguin, 1985), p 187. The phrase 'the social laboratory of the world' is so commonly applied in New Zealand historiography to the period of the Liberal Government (1891 – 1912) as to be apocryphal. Sinclair pins its origin to Asquith at the Eighty Club in London at the turn of the century.

3. Janet Frame, Intensive Care (Wellington: Reed, 1970). The quotations in the text are taken from pp. 335 - 338 and the paragraph quoted is from p. 339. Janet Frame ( 1924 - ) is the author eleven novels and is probably best known for her three volume autobiograhy, which was made into a feature film, An Angel at My Table (1990) by Jane Campion.

4. Frame, pp. 341 – 42.

5. Frame, p.240.

6. Miles Fairburn, 'The Farmers take Over (1912 - 30)' in The Oxford Illustrated History of New Zealand ed. by Keith Sinclair, 2nd edn. (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 185.

7. M.P.K.Sorrenson, "Modern Maaori: The Young Maori Party to Mana Motuhake" in The Oxford Illustrated History of New Zealand ed. by Keith Sinclair, 2nd edn. (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 323.

8. Cary Nelson, Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory 1910 - 1945 (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), p. 36.

9. Nelson, p.133.

10. Nelson, p.50.

11. Charles Bernstein, 'Poetics of the Americas', Modernism and Modernity, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sept. 1996, pp.1 - 3.

12. Alan Brunton's editing of 'Words & Music', a 20 page supplement in Illusions Nos. 21/22, Winter 1993, pp. 22 - 41, is an attempt to bring the lyrics of pop songs and the poetry of literary antholgies into the same universe. There are contributions from Helen Johnstone, Sophie Oakley, Dusty Spittle, Gordon Spittle, Jan Preston, David Eggleton, Martin Edmond, Barry Linton, Charlotte Yates, Tim Finn, Lawrence MacDonald, John Barnett and Lesley Kaiser.

13. Bernstein, p.4.

14. Jacques Rancière, The Names of History: On the Poetics of Knowledge (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), p.101.

15. Rancière, p.24.

16. Lyn Hejinian, 'The Quest for Knowldege in the Western Poem', in Disembodied Poetics: Annals of the Jack Kerouac School, ed. by Anne Waldman and Andrew Schelling (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1994), p.172.

17. James Belich, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders From Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century (Auckland: Penguin, 1996), p. 279.

18. Charles Heaphy, Narrative of a Residence in Various Parts of New Zealand, Together with a Description of the Present State of the Company's Settlements [London: Smith, Elder, 1842] (Reprint Christchurch: Capper, 1972), p.3.

19. Heaphy, Residence, pp. 14-15.

20. Geoffrey Hawthorn, 'Hayek and His Overcoat', London Review of Books , 1 Oct. 1998, p.21.

21. Heaphy, Residence, p. 112.

22. Chris Slane and Robert Sullivan, Maui Legends of the Outcast: A Graphic Novel (Auckland: Godwit, 1996), p.29.

23. Te Rangi Hiroa (Sir Peter Buck), The Coming of the Maori [1949] (Wellington: Maori Purposes Board and Whitcombe and Tombs, 1974), p.5.

24. Charles Heaphy, 'Notes of an Expedition to Kawatiri and Araura, on the Western Coast of the Middle Island', in Early Travellers in New Zealand, ed. by Nancy M. Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1959), p. 188.

25. Heaphy, 'Notes', pp.234 –35 and 237-38.

26. Robin Hyde was the pen-name of Iris Wilkinson (1906 – 1939). In a short, energetic life she published five novels, an account of her stay in China in 1938, and many poems as well as working as a professional journalist. She committed suicide in London in 1939, just days before the outbreak of World War Two.

27. Hyde, 'Young Knowledge', lines 147 – 55 Hyde's use of "ake" where Heaphy uses "rata" (which would have scanned as well) is puzzling. Akeake (or sometimes "ake") is the name for Dodonaea viscosa. Aka is a word used for any climbing plant or vine and is used for Metrosideros scandens, the liane rata, which grows on the west coast of the South Island and is, almost certainly, the kind of rata from which the ladders Heaphy found were built. Why Hyde should write "ake" for "aka" remains unclear to me.

28. Hyde, 'Young Knowledge', lines 156 – 62.

29. Charles Brasch, Indirections: A Memoir 1909 - 1947, (Oxford University Press, 1980), p.391. Quoted in Ian Wedde's 'Introduction', The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse (1985).

30. Alistair Campbell, 'Glover and Georgianism', Comment, No. 21, Oct./Nov. 1964, pp.26 - 27.

31. Michele Leggott, 'Opening the Archive: Robin Hyde, Eileen Duggan and the Persistence of Record', in Opening the Book: New Essays on New Zealand Writing , ed. by Mark Williams and Michele Leggott (Auckland: Auckland Universit Press, 1995), p.274.

32. Mary Paul, 'Reading Readings: Some Current Critical Debates about New Zealand Literature and Culture' (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Auckland, 1995), pp. 231 and 233.

33. Apirana Taylor, 'Whaea Kairau' (unpublished playscript, Playmarket: Wellington, 1995), pp. 55 - 56.

34. All quotations about Heaphy from Michael Fitzgerald, 'Heaphy, Charles 1820 – 1881', in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Volume One 1769 - 1870 (Bridget Williams Books/Department of Internal Affairs: Wellington, 1990), pp. 181 - 83. Ian Wedde, discussing Hyde's 'Young Knowledge' in his 'Introduction' to The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse (1985), describes Heaphy as a 'scientist', but he was never a scientist, except possibly when, in 1859, he assisted Ferdinand Hochstetter to carry out his survey of the economic geology of the Auckland province. Heaphy's c.v would include painter, draughtsman, surveyor, farmer, explorer, gold commissioner, secretary to Governor Grey, soldier, Member of Parliament, Commissioner of Native Reserves, and Judge of the Native Land Court: a typical colonial grab-bag.

35. James Belich, The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (Auckland: Penguin, 1988), p. 320.

36. Keith Sinclair, 'Visiting North Carolina', Comment No. 10, Jan. 1962, p.24.

37. Dean Hapeta/D Word/Te Kupu, 'E Tu', in The Next Wave, ed. by Mark Pirie (Dunedin: Otago University Press, 1998), pp. 112 - 113, lines 17 - 22. 'E tu' means, literally, 'stand up'. A 'pa' is a fortified position and 'kia kaha' means 'be strong'.

38. M.P.K.Sorrenson, 'Modern Maaori', p. 351.

39. 'Reparation Cannot Match Suggested Billions Says Govt', NZ Herald, 15 June 1996, Section One, p. 1, and 'Long Legacy of Unkept Promises, Deprivation', NZ Herald, 15 June 1996, Section One, p. 7.

40. Judith Binney, 'Maaori Prophet Leaders', in The Oxford Illustrated History of New Zealand, ed. by Keith Sinclair, 2nd edn. (Auckland: Oxford UP, 1998), pp. 159 - 60.

41. James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period Vol 2 The Hauhau Wars 1864 – 1872 (Wellington: Skinner Government Printer, 1923), p. 10.

42. Cowan, p.23.

43. Rangiaahuta Alan Herewini Ruka Broughton, Ngaa Mahi Whakaari a Tiitokowaru (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1993), pp. 81 - 82.

44. Belich, New Zealand Wars, p. 311.

45. The version of the opening lines of this waiata which I have quoted here are from Hone Tuwhare's Deep River Talk, p. 164 and his source is Cowan's typescript (Folio No. M5, Manuscript Section, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington). Cowan's typescript says that the waiata was dictated to him by Te Whareaitu of Ngahau Kainga, Hawera. In his New Zealand Wars Cowan provided his own heavily embellished translation in archaic English, of which, the opening lines read:

The lightning's spear flashed redly down
On Turamoe peak,
Omen of warriors' death and women's woe,
Portent that boded forth thy fall,
O Tiopira!
Thou who didst stand in brave array
In the bows of the canoe,
And thou, Hapeta! cold thou liest;
Death spread his lure for thee! (p.26)

In Ngaa Mahi Whakaaria Tiitokowaru Ruka Broughton prints a full text of this waiata (27 lines) which varies from the Cowan version which Tuwhare used; here are the equivalent lines in Broughton:

E hiko e te uira i tai raa,
Kapo tara tahi ana, tara ki Turamoe.
Naumai, Taawera, te whetuu tau marama
Ko te tohu o te mate i nunumi atu ai.
E tuu, e Tio, i te ihu o te waka.
Ngahae roroa te whatu tohu uu, e Peta,
I maunu atu ai te taniwha i terua,
Taku tuhi maareikura, ee ii. (p.82)

46. Hone Tuwhare, Deep River Talk : Collected Poems (Auckland: Godwit, 1993), pp. 164 – 165. Hone Tuwhare (1922 - ) published his first book of poems, No Ordinary Sun , in 1964. This book had immediate impact, and since then he has published a dozen further volumes of poetry and remains the senior Maori poet writing in English.

47. Judith Binney, Redemption Songs: A Life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki (Auckland: Auckland University Press and Bridget Williams Books, 1995), p. 561. Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki (1831? – 1893) was the founder of the Ringatu religion. He was unjustly imprisoned on the Chatham Islands from 1866 – 68. While there he experienced visions which provided the foundation of Ringatu. In 1868, with more than three hundred followers, he escaped from the island prison, sailed back to the east coast of the North Island and began a campaign of armed resistance, a guerilla-style struggle which lasted until 1872. Though pursued relentlessly, he was never captured. In 1883 he was pardoned and the last decade of his life was dedicated to developing Ringatu.

48. Waiata: Maori Songs in History, trans. and intro. by Margaret Orbell (Auckland: Reed, 1991), p. 74.

49. Aristotle, Poetics, trans. by Leon Golden (Englewood Cliffs: N.J., 1968), p. 17.

50. Kendrick Smithyman, Atua Wera (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1997), p. 260.

51. Rancière, p. 64.

52. Rancière, p. 63.

53. Michele Leggott, 'Tigers', Swimmers, Dancers (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1991), poem three, line 20.

54. Leggott, p.53.

55. Leggott, p.53.

56. L.F.Head, 'Te Ua and the Hauhau Faith in the Light of the Ua Gospel Notebook' (unpublished dissertation for M.A. in History, University of Canterbury, 1983), p. 9 and p. 40.

57. Hejinian, p.175.

58. Hejinian, p.172.

59. Nelson, p. 244.

60. Taylor, 'Whaea Kairau', pp. 78 - 79.

 

 


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Last updated 11 July, 2001